Resume

   Qinghua Hu, received his B. S., M. S. and Ph.D. degrees from Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China in 1999, 2002 and 2008, respectively. He worked with Harbin Institute of Technology from 2006 to 2011. He also worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow with Department of Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University from 2009 to 2011. He joined School of Computer Science and Technology, Tianjin University in 2012. Now he is a full professor and vice dean of the school.
   His research interests are focused on rough sets, granular computing, data mining for classification and regression. He started a workshop on granular computing in 2009. It was held in Harbin, Baoding, Xi’an, Jinzhou and Tianjin these years. He once acted as PC Co-Chairs of RSCTC 2010, CRSSC 2012, 2014, RSKT 2014 and ICMLC 2014, and severs as referee for a great number of journals and conferences. He has published more than 100 journal and conference papers in the areas of granular computing based machine learning, reasoning with uncertainty, pattern recognition and fault diagnosis.

Selective Publications

[1] Qinghua Hu, Xunjian Che, Lei Zhang, David Zhang, Maozu Guo, Daren Yu. Rank entropy based decision trees for monotonic classification. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. 2012, 24(11):2052-2064 [2] Qinghua Hu, Lei Zhang, Shuang An, David Zhang, Daren Yu. On robust fuzzy rough set models. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems. 2012, 20(4):636-651. [3] Qinghua Hu, Weiwei Pan, Lei Zhang, David Zhang, Yanping Song, Maozu Guo, Daren Yu. Feature selection for monotonic classification. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems. . 2012, 20(1): 69-81 [4] Zhiqiang Xu, Qinghua Hu. Mehrdad Ehsani. Estimation of Effective Wind Speed for Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines Based on Frequency Domain Data Fusion. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 2012, 3(1): 57-64. [5] Qinghua Hu, Daren Yu, Witold Pedrycz, Degang Chen. Kernelized fuzzy rough sets and their applications. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. vol. 23, no.11, pp. 1649 – 1667, 2011. [6] Qinghua Hu, Witold Pedrycz, Daren Yu and Jun Lang. Selecting Discrete and Continuous Features Based on Neighborhood Decision Error Minimization. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part B: Cybernetics. 2010, 40 (1):137-150. [7] Qinghua Hu, Daren Yu, Zongxia Xie, Jinfu Liu. Fuzzy probabilistic approximation spaces and their information measures. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems. 2006, 14 (2): 191- 201. [8] Qinghua Hu, Daren Yu, Jinfu Liu, Congxin Wu. Neighborhood rough set based heterogeneous feature subset selection. Information Sciences. 178(2008) 3577-3594. [9] Qinghua Hu, Daren Yu, Zongxia Xie, Xiaodong Li. EROS: ensemble rough subspaces. Pattern Recognition. 40 (2007) 3728 – 3739.
[10] Qinghua Hu, Zongxia Xie, Daren Yu. Hybrid attribute reduction based on a novel fuzzy-rough model and information granulation. Pattern Recognition 40 (2007) 3509 – 3521.

Journal publications

[1]Xu L,Hu QH,Hung E,Szeto CC. A heuristic approach to effective and efficient clustering on uncertain objects. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 66:112-125 , 2014. [2]Wang CZ,He Q,Chen DG,Hu QH. A novel method for attribute reduction of covering decision systems. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 254:181-196 , 2014. [3]Hu QH,Li LJ,Wu XQ,Schaefer G,Yu DR. Exploiting diversity for optimizing margin distribution in ensemble learning. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 67:90-104 , 2014. [4]Li LJ,Hu QH,Wu XQ,Yu DR. Exploration of classification confidence in ensemble learning. PATTERN RECOGNITION. 47(9):3120-3131 , 2014. [5]Pan WW,Hu QH,Song YP,Yu DR. Feature selection for monotonic classification via maximizing monotonic dependency. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS. 7(3):543-555 , 2014. [6]Min F,Hu QH,Zhu W. Feature selection with test cost constraint. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPROXIMATE REASONING. 55(1):167-179 , 2014. [7]Wang CZ,Chen DG,Hu QH. Fuzzy information systems and their homomorphisms. FUZZY SETS AND SYSTEMS. 249:128-138 , 2014. [8]An S,Shi H,Hu QH,Li XQ,Dang JW. Fuzzy rough regression with application to wind speed prediction. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 282:388-400 , 2014. [9]He RF,Zhang Y,Li T,Hu QH. Improved conditional random fields model with multi-trigger embedding for Chinese event extraction. WORLD WIDE WEB-INTERNET AND WEB INFORMATION SYSTEMS. 17(5):1029-1049 , 2014. [10]Zhu PF,Hu QH,Zuo WM,Yang M. Multi-granularity distance metric learning via neighborhood granule margin maximization. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 282:321-331 , 2014. [11]Hu QH,Zhang SG,Xie ZX,Mi JS,Wan J. Noise model based v-support vector regression with its application to short-term wind speed forecasting. NEURAL NETWORKS. 57:1-11 , 2014. [12]Hu QH,Su PY,Yu DR,Liu JF. Pattern-Based Wind Speed Prediction Based on Generalized Principal Component Analysis. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. 5(3):866-874 , 2014. [13]Qian YH,Zhang H,Li FJ,Hu QH,Liang JY. Set-based granular computing: A lattice model. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPROXIMATE REASONING. 55(3):834-852 , 2014. [14]Wei P,Hu QH,Ma PJ,Su XH. Robust feature selection based on regularized brownboost loss. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 54(SI):180-198 , 2013. [15]Zhu PF,Hu QH. Adaptive neighborhood granularity selection and combination based on margin distribution optimization. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 249:1-12 , 2013. [16]Zhu PF,Hu QH. Rule extraction from support vector machines based on consistent region covering reduction. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 42:1-8 , 2013. [17]Tsang ECC,Wang CZ,Chen DG,Wu CX,Hu QH. Communication Between Information Systems Using Fuzzy Rough Sets. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS. 21(3):527-540 , 2013. [18]Li LJ,Zou B,Hu QH,Wu XQ,Yu DR. Dynamic classifier ensemble using classification confidence. NEUROCOMPUTING. 99:581-591 , 2013.
[19]Jin D,He DX,Hu QH,Baquero C,Yang B. Extending a configuration model to find communities in complex networks. JOURNAL OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS-THEORY AND EXPERIMENT. 2013. [20]Zhang KH,Zhang L,Yang MH,Hu QH. Robust Object Tracking via Active Feature Selection. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY. 23(11):1957-1967 , 2013. [21]Hu QH,Che XJ,Zhang L,Zhang D,Guo MZ,Yu DR. Rank Entropy-Based Decision Trees for Monotonic Classification. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING. 24(11):2052-2064 , 2012. [22]Schaefer G,Hu QH,Zhou HY,Peters JF,Hassanien AE. Rough C-means and Fuzzy Rough C-means for Colour Quantisation. FUNDAMENTA INFORMATICAE. 119(1):113-120 , 2012. [23]Wang CZ,Chen DG,Sun BQ,Hu QH. Communication between information systems with covering based rough sets. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 216:17-33 , 2012. [24]Xu ZQ,Hu QH,Ehsani M. Estimation of Effective Wind Speed for Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines Based on Frequency Domain Data Fusion. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. 3(1):57-64 , 2012. [25]Hu QH,Pan WW,Zhang L,Zhang D,Song YP,Guo MZ,Yu DR. Feature selection for monotonic classification. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS. 20(1):69-81 , 2012. [26]Hu QH,Pan WW,Song YP,Yu DR. Large-margin feature selection for monotonic classification. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 31:8-18 , 2012. [27]Xie ZX,Xu Y,Hu QH,Zhu PF. Margin distribution based bagging pruning. NEUROCOMPUTING. 85:11-19 , 2012. [28]Li N,Zhou R,Hu QH,Liu XH. Mechanical fault diagnosis based on redundant second generation wavelet packet transform, neighborhood rough set and support vector machine. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING. 28(SI):608-621 , 2012. [29]Hu QH,Zhang L,An S,Zhang D,Yu DR. On robust fuzzy rough set models. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS. 20(4):636-651 , 2012. [30]Chen DG,Hu QH,Yang YP. Parameterized attribute reduction with Gaussian kernel based fuzzy rough sets. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 181(23):5169-5179 , 2011. [31]Hu QH,An S,Yu X,Yu DR. Robust fuzzy rough classifiers. FUZZY SETS AND SYSTEMS. 183(1):26-43 , 2011. [32]Du Y,Hu QH,Zhu PF,Ma PJ. Rule learning for classification based on neighborhood covering reduction. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 181(24):5457-5467 , 2011. [33]Chang JT,Hu QH,Yu DR,Bao W. Classifier utility modeling and analysis of hypersonic inlet start/unstart considering training data costs. ACTA ASTRONAUTICA. 69(9-10):841-847 , 2011. [34]Wang CZ,Chen DG,Wu C,Hu QH. Data compression with homomorphism in covering information systems. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPROXIMATE REASONING. 52(4):519-525 , 2011. [35]Yu DR,Yu X,Hu QH,Liu JF,Wu AQ. Dynamic time warping constraint learning for large margin nearest neighbor classification. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 181(13):2787-2796 , 2011. [36]Deng TQ,Yang CD,Hu QH. Feature Selection in Decision Systems Based on Conditional Knowledge Granularity. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS. 4(4):655-671 , 2011. [37]Yu DR,An S,Hu QH. Fuzzy Mutual Information Based min-Redundancy and Max-Relevance Heterogeneous Feature Selection. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS. 4(4):619-633 , 2011. Yu DR,Xie ZX,Hu QH,Yang SH,Jin CL. Properties of Granules in Upflows and Downflows. SOLAR PHYSICS. 273(1):1-13 , 2011. [38]Du Y,Chen DG,Hu QH,Ma PJ. Kernelized Fuzzy Rough Sets Based Yawn Detection for Driver Fatigue Monitoring. FUNDAMENTA INFORMATICAE. 111(1):65-79 , 2011.
[39]Hu QH,Yu DR,Pedrycz W,Chen DG. Kernelized fuzzy rough sets and their applications. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING. 23(11):1649-1667 , 2011. [40]Hu QH,Zhu PF,Yang YB,Yu D. Large-margin nearest neighbor classifiers via sample weight learning. NEUROCOMPUTING. 74(4):656-660 , 2011. [41]Hu QH,Zhang L,Zhang D,Pan W,An S,Pedrycz W. Measuring relevance between discrete and continuous features based on neighborhood mutual information. EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS. 38(9):10737-10750 , 2011. [42]He Q,Xie ZX,Hu QH,Wu CX. Neighborhood based sample and feature selection for SVM classification learning. NEUROCOMPUTING. 74(10):1585-1594 , 2011. [43]Yu DR,Xie ZX,Hu QH,Yang SH,Zhang J,Wang JX. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE AND SMALL GRANULES IN SOLAR QUIET REGIONS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 743(1), 2011. [44]Huang X,Yu DR,Hu QH,Wang HN,Cui YM. Short-Term Solar Flare Prediction Using Predictor Teams. SOLAR PHYSICS. 263(1-2):175-184 , 2010. [45]Hu QH,An SA,Yu DR. Soft fuzzy rough sets for robust feature evaluation and selection. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 180(22):4384-4400 , 2010. [46]Zhao XM,Hu QH,Lei YG,Zuo MJ. Vibration-based fault diagnosis of slurry pump impellers using neighbourhood rough set models. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART C-JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE. 224(C4):995-1006 , 2010. [47]Wang CZ,Chen DG,Hu QH. Some invariant properties of ordered information systems under homomorphism. SCIENCE CHINA-INFORMATION SCIENCES. 53(9):1816-1825 , 2010. [48]Wei JM,Yuan XJ,Hu QH,Wang SQ. A novel measure for evaluating classifiers. EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS. 37(5):3799-3809 , 2010. [49]Yu DR,Duan YF,Liu JF,Liu ZS,Hu QH. Experimental Study on Fault Caused by Partial Arc Steam Forces and Its Economic Solution. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME. 132(6), 2010. [50]Hu QH,Zhu PF,Liu JF,Yang YB,Yu DR. Feature Selection via Maximizing Fuzzy Dependency. FUNDAMENTA INFORMATICAE. 98(2-3):167-181 , 2010. [51]Hu QH,Che XJ,Zhang L,Yu DR. Feature evaluation and selection based on neighborhood soft margin. NEUROCOMPUTING. 73(10-12):2114-2124 , 2010. [52]Hu QH,Yu DR,Guo MZ. Fuzzy preference based rough sets. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 180(10):2003-2022 , 2010. [53]Hu QH,Zhang L,Chen DG,Pedrycz W,Yu DR. Gaussian kernel based fuzzy rough sets: Model, uncertainty measures and applications. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPROXIMATE REASONING. 51(4):453-471 , 2010. [54]Hu QH,Guo MZ,Yu DR,Liu JF. Information entropy for ordinal classification. SCIENCE CHINA-INFORMATION SCIENCES. 53(6):1188-1200 , 2010. [55]Yu DR,Huang X,Wang HN,Cui YM,Hu QH,Zhou R. SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE LEVEL PREDICTION USING A BAYESIAN NETWORK APPROACH. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 710(1):869-877 , 2010. [56]Yu D,Huang X,Hu QH,Zhou R,Wang HN,Cui YM. SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING MULTIRESOLUTION PREDICTORS. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL. 709(1):321-326 , 2010. [57]Hu QH,Pedrycz W,Yu DR,Lang J. Selecting Discrete and Continuous Features Based on Neighborhood Decision Error Minimization. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART B-CYBERNETICS. 40(1):137-150 , 2010. [58]Xie ZX,Yu DR,Zhang J,Yang SH,Hu QH. Properties of magnetic elements in the quiet Sun using the marker-controlled watershed method. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. 505(2):801-810 , 2009.
[59]Liu JF,Hu QH,Yu DR. A weighted rough set based method developed for class imbalance learning. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 178(4):1235-1256 , 2008. [60]Hu QH,Liu JF,Yu DR. Mixed feature selection based on granulation and approximation. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 21(4):294-304 , 2008. [61]Hu QH,Yu DR,Me Z. Neighborhood classifiers. EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS. 34(2):866-876 , 2008. [62]Hu QH,Yu DR,Liu JF,Wu CX. Neighborhood rough set based heterogeneous feature subset selection. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 178(18):3577-3594 , 2008. [63]Liu JF,Hu QH,Yu DR. A comparative study on rough set based class imbalance learning. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 21(8):753-763 , 2008. [64]Chen DG,Wang CZ,Hu QH. A new approach to attribute reduction of consistent and inconsistent covering decision systems with covering rough sets. INFORMATION SCIENCES. 177(17):3500-3518 , 2007. [65]Hu QH,Yu D,Xie ZX,Li XD. EROS: ensemble rough subspaces. PATTERN RECOGNITION. 40(12):3728-3739 , 2007. [66]Hu QH,Xie ZX,Yu DR. Hybrid attribute reduction based on a novel fuzzy-rough model and information granulation. PATTERN RECOGNITION. 40(12):3509-3521 , 2007. [67]Yu DR,Hu QH,Wu CX. Uncertainty measures for fuzzy relations and their applications. APPLIED SOFT COMPUTING. 7(3):1135-1143 , 2007. [68]Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX,Liu JF. Fuzzy probabilistic approximation spaces and their information measures. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS. 14(2):191-201 , 2006. [69]Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX. Information-preserving hybrid data reduction based on fuzzy-rough techniques. PATTERN RECOGNITION LETTERS. 27(5):414-423 , 2006. [70]Hu QH,Yu DR. Entropies of fuzzy indiscernibility relation and its operations. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UNCERTAINTY FUZZINESS AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS. 12(5):575-589 , 2004.

Conference papers

[1]An S,Hu QH,Yu DR. Case-Based Classifiers with Fuzzy Rough Sets. 6th International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology. 6954:172-177 , 2011, Banff, CANADA. [2]Du Y,Hu QH,Ma PJ,Su XH. Driver Status Recognition by Neighborhood Covering Rules. 6th International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology. 6954:327-336 , 2011, Banff, CANADA. [3]An S,Hu QH,Yu DR. A Robust Fuzzy Rough Set Model Based on Minimum Enclosing Ball. 5th International Conference on Rough Set and Knowledge Technology (RSKT). 6401:102-109 , 2010, Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA. [4]Zhu PF,Hu QH,Yang YB. Weighted Nearest Neighbor Classification via Maximizing Classification Consistency. 7th International Conference on Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing. 6086:347-355 , 2010, Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, POLAND. [5]Hu QH,Che XJ,Liu JF. Feature Selection via Maximizing Neighborhood Soft Margin. 1st Asian Conference on Machine Learning. 5828:150-161 , 2009, Nanjing, PEOPLES R CHINA. [6]Hu QH,Chen DG,Yu DR,Pedrycz W. Kernelized Fuzzy Rough Sets. 4th International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology. 5589:304-311 , 2009, Gold Coast, AUSTRALIA.
[7]Hu QH,Yu DR. NEIGHBORHOOD ENTROPY. International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. 1776-1782 , 2009, Baoding, PEOPLES R CHINA. [8]An S,Hu QH,Yu DR. Fuzzy Entropy Based Max-Relevancy and Min-Redundancy Feature Selection. IEEE International Conference on Granular Computing. 101-106 , 2008, Hangzhou, PEOPLES R CHINA. [9]Hu QH,Yu DR,Wu CX. Fuzzy preference relation rough sets. IEEE International Conference on Granular Computing. 300-305 , 2008, Hangzhou, PEOPLES R CHINA. [10]Hu QH,Liu JF,Yu DR. Stability analysis on rough set based feature evaluation. 3rd International Conference on Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology. 5009:88-96 , 2008, Chengdu, PEOPLES R CHINA. [11]Sui XS,Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX,Qi ZY. A hybrid method for forecasting stock market trend using soft-thresholding de-noise model and SVM. 11th International Conference on Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining and Granular Computing (RSFDGrC 2007). 4482:387-394 , 2007, Toronto, CANADA. [12]Sui XS,Qi ZY,Yu DR,Hu QH,Zhao H. A novel feature selection approach using classification complexity for SVM of stock market trend prediction. 14th International Conference on Management Science and Engineering. 1654-1659 , 2007, Harbin, PEOPLES R CHINA. [13]Wang W,Hu QH,Yu DR. Application of multivalued test sequencing to fault diagnosis. 8th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments. 737-740 , 2007, Xian, PEOPLES R CHINA. [14]Hu QH,Zhao H,Xie ZX,Yu DR. Consistency based attribute reduction. 11th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. 4426:96-107 , 2007, Nanjing, PEOPLES R CHINA. [15]Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX. Selecting samples and features for SVM based on neighborhood model. 11th International Conference on Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining and Granular Computing (RSFDGrC 2007). 4482:508-517 , 2007, Toronto, CANADA. [16]Wang W,Yu DR,Hu QH. Test sequencing strategy with imperfect test. 8th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments. 744-747 , 2007, Xian, PEOPLES R CHINA. [17]Liu JF,Hu QH,Yu DR. Weighted rough set learning: Towards a subjective approach. 11th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. 4426:696-703 , 2007, Nanjing, PEOPLES R CHINA. [18]Hu QH,Wang MY,Yu DR. Construct rough decision forests based on sequentially data reduction. 5th International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. 2284-2289 , 2006, Dalian, PEOPLES R CHINA. [19]Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX. Hybrid Attribute Reduction for Classification Based on A Fuzzy Rough Set Technique. 5th SIAM International Conference on Data Mining. 195-204 , 2005, Newport Beach, CA. [20]Liu JF,Yu DR,Hu QH,Li XD. Granular entropy based hybrid knowledge reduction using uniform rough approximations. International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. 1878-1883 , 2004, Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA. [21]Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX. Improvement on classification performance based on multiple reduct ensemble. IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems. 1016-1021 , 2004, Singapore, SINGAPORE. [22]Hu QH,Yu DR,Xie ZX. Reduction algorthims for hybrid data based on fuzzy rough set approaches. International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. 1469-1474 , 2004, Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA. [23]Hu QH,Yu DR. Variable precision dominance based rough set model and reduction algorithm for preference-ordered data. International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. 2279-2284 , 2004, Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA. [24]Hu QH,Yu D,Duan YF,Bao W. A novel weighting formula and feature selection for text classification based on rough set theory. International Conference on Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering. 638-645 , 2003, BEIJING, PEOPLES R CHINA.

Honours

  • The best student paper award in PRICAI 2006
  • The best student paper award in CRSSC2007
  • The best student paper award in CRSSC2010 with Pengfei Zhu
  • The Most Cited Articles 2008 in Expert System with Applications